CutFIG 13 Cuticle defects in an eff-1 mutant.

CutFIG 13: Cuticle defects in an eff-1 mutant.

Four scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of adult eff-1 mutants reveal a variety of defects in the cuticle. The EFF-1 protein is required for proper cell-cell fusion events in many syncytial tissues, including hypodermis, seam cells and vulval epithelium (cf. Shemer et al., 2004; Gattegno et al., 2007).
Molting defects are fairly common in eff-1 animals as indicated by image showing adult head still retaining the L4 cuticle, attached to the opening of the buccal cavity (black arrowhead).
Vulva is partially extruded (white arrowhead) and the alae are often split into two parallel rows (black arrows) due to defects in the underlying seam cells, which often fail to fuse into a single row during late larval development.
C. Alae in the tail are again discontinuous (black arrow), reflecting a highly irregular positioning of the underlying seam cells.
D. Adult tail still retains the L4 cuticle (black arrowhead) due to defective molting.
(Image source: Hall archive; sample preparation and imaging by Carolyn Marks and David Hall.)

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