AWC and AIA.
(Chalasani et al., 2010; Li and Kim, 2008; Altun-Gultekin et al., 2001; Nelson et al., 1998)
None yet reported, although described to have gap junctions in adult animals (MoW)
- GLR-2; AMPA-type ionotropic (Na+/K+) glutamate receptor subunit
- GLC-3; L-glutamate-gated chloride channel subunit (ionotropic glutamate rec subunit). AWC-AIA synapse is an inhibitory, glutamatergic synapse via GLC-3, whose function is acutely modulated by NLP-1/NPR-11 signaling
- GCY-28; transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase
- MGL-1; group II metabotropic glutamate receptor
- NPR-5; receptor for FLP-18 peptides
- NPR-11; candidate receptor for NLP-1
- SCD-2; ALK receptor tyrosine kinase
- SRA-11; G protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor
(Wormbase; Altun, 2011; Shinkai et al, 2011; Chalasani et al., 2010; Glauser and Goodman, 2010; Greer et al, 2008; Altun-Gultekin et al., 2001; Brockie et al., 2001)
Function: Integration of information from amphid sensory neurons; AIA pair is one of the four (AIA, AIB, AIY, and AIZ) first layer amphid interneuron pairs that receive and process synaptic output from the amphid sensory neurons towards a behavioral response. AIA pair is suggested to sum inputs from various chemosensory neurons before passing the information on to AIB pair, which synapses onto motor neurons (AIA-AIB connections are likely to be inhibitory) (Wakayabashi et al., 2004). AIA neurons are the main target of ASI outputs.
- AIA interneurons integrate multiple sensory cues to adjust behavioral choices and play an important role in learning (e.g. salt chemotaxis learning) and behavioral plasticity (Shinkai et al, 2011; Tomioka et al., 2006).
- Functions in locomotion: in isothermal tracking, AIB and AIZ interneurons promote turns while AIY and AIA interneurons inhibit turns (Garrity et al., 2010).
- The AIA neurons play a role in chemotaxis to ascarosides, downstream of the ASK sensory neuron (Srinivasan et al., 2012, Macosko et al., 2009).