DBehaviorFIG 2: Larval nictation and flipping behaviors for dispersal.
A. Nematodes in the dauer or infective stages are adapted for dispersal to new environments in search of fresh food sources or for attaching to a new host, respectively. Both needs require mechanisms for attaching to a vector or host animal, such as a bird or insect.
B-D. Larvae perform nictation behavior to increase their height above the surface, increasing the chances of being picked up by a passing object, such as the bird’s claw or an insect’s body.
E. S. carpocapsae infective juveniles also perform “jumping” behavior to become airborne, thereby acquiring a more secure attachment to the passing animal.
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